Thursday, 31 December 2020

5 Most Common Application-Level Attacks to Look Out For

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In the past decade, cybercrime has witnessed an exponential surge, leading to tremendous financial and critical data losses across nearly all domains. From smartphones to computer systems, existing and new vulnerabilities have left gaping holes in device security. Most of these security vulnerabilities are caused by powerless coding practices, driving to the program code’s low integrity. There are 5 main types of application attacks, wherein hackers control application-layer loopholes to dispatch their attacks on poorly coded systems.

The method of defending websites and online resources from numerous security attacks that target bugs in the application code is called web application security. Content management systems (e.g., WordPress), database administration solutions (e.g., phpMyAdmin), and Software as a Service (SaaS) frameworks are typical targets for web application assaults.

Types of Application Attacks

SQL Injection Attack

An SQL injection attack is essentially a code infusion method that is used to attack web-based and data-driven applications. The use of this attack methodology is aimed at getting access to sensitive/secure information. The SQL injection attack entails the embedding of malicious SQL scripts in a section field of a web application. Such attacks exploit open fields to infiltrate a database. The impact of an SQL injection attack considers the targeted database and the roles and privileges in the existing SQL policy. There are two types of SQL attacks, namely:

◉ First Order Attacks: In this attack type, a malicious string is inserted into the SQL script to modify the code for immediate execution.

◉ Second Order Attacks: In this attack form, the SQL manipulation is carried out via injecting a persistent storage module, e.g., a table row. The storage system is considered as a trusted source by the target machine, thus allowing the hacker to execute the attack via other activities.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attack

Cross-site scripting, or more commonly known as XSS, is yet another powerful attack vector that exploits a vulnerability in network protection, thus enabling an attacker to exploit compromised applications. The XSS attack allows the hacker to infiltrate the policy of origin that distinguishes multiple websites from each other. This attack type masks the attacker as an ordinary user, thus giving access to a user’s data and the space to perform activities which a typical user can using his/her login credentials.

Parameter Tampering

One of the most dangerous forms of application attacks is parameter tampering. Using this attack vector, a hacker can access the information shared between the client and the server, which typically consists of credentials and authorizations, product cost and amount, etc. Web Scarab and Paros Proxy are primarily used when conducting a parameter tampering attack.

Directory Traversal

Directory traversal, also referred to as route traversal, allows a hacker to infiltrate a web server’s root directory using a loophole and then gain access to other server file system locations. The loophole is dependent on the type of web server and the operating system in use.

For example: The webserver process can be made to access files beyond the root of the web document, if a bug is present in the system. This can lead to a path traversal loophole that can be exploited to carry out a directory traversal attack. The attacker can then gain access to a host of arbitrary files, including application source code, device files, server logs, and other files that containing sensitive information.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack

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A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is carried out to shut down a system or network, thus making it unavailable to the intended users. DoS attacks overwhelm the target with traffic, giving it information that causes a crash. In all cases, the DoS attack deprives legal users of the facility or resource they were anticipating. DoS attack victims also threaten high-profile organizations’ web servers, spanning sectors such as finance, trade, media, and government. While DoS attacks usually do not result in fraud or destruction of valuable data or other assets, they will cost the victim a lot of time and resources.

Why Applications Become Vulnerable to Attacks

Web apps do pose a range of security issues arising from inappropriate coding, notwithstanding their benefits. In a web application attack, significant weaknesses or flaws allow hackers to obtain direct and public access to databases.

Web apps are an easy target when programmers make mistakes that allow confidential data to be obtained by unauthorized persons or permit them to receive administrative access privileges to the web application itself or even the server. Attacks commonly exploit the reality that web applications recognize user feedback and will not screen this input for malicious content. Web apps are particularly vulnerable to design threats and firewalls do not secure them. If they are on the internet, they must be open all the time. Malicious hackers will, however, attempt to access them quickly.

Many of these databases have useful data that makes them a popular target for attacks. While such acts of vandalism as defacing company websites are still prevalent, perpetrators now tend to gain access to the confidential data residing on the database server because of the large payoffs in selling the results of data breaches.


Most Common Reasons for Application Attacks


1. To deliver the required support to consumers, staff, vendors, and other stakeholders, websites and associated software apps must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

2. No security against a web application attack is offered by firewalls and SSL solely because links to the website must be made public.

3. All modern database systems may be easy to access through specific ports. Anyone can attempt direct connections to the databases, effectively bypassing the operating system’s security mechanisms, and can access both the current database through particular ports. Anyone can try to easily circumvent the operating system’s protection protocols through direct links to the databases. This allows contact with legal traffic, and so these ports remain open and constitute a significant weakness.

4. Web apps also have direct access to backend information such as client databases, which possess sensitive information and are far more challenging to protect. Some scripts facilitate data collection and dissemination and would be accessible to those who do not have access. They will easily divert unsuspecting traffic to another location and illegitimately hive off sensitive information if an intruder becomes aware of such writing vulnerabilities.

5. Many web applications are custom-made and thus need a lower level of review than off-the-shelf software. Custom programs are, however, more vulnerable to attacks.

Therefore, web applications are a gateway to databases, especially personalized applications that are not established in compliance with security best practices and do not undergo routine security audits.    

Source: eccouncil.org

Tuesday, 29 December 2020

What Is Defense in Depth?

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Defense in depth (DiD) is an information assurance approach where several layers of defense are stationed all through an IT system. It tackles security vulnerabilities in technology, human resources, and operations throughout the system’s life cycle.

DiD derives from a military approach that tries to slow down the progress of an attack, instead of overwhelming it with a robust line of defense, in order to buy more time. The idea of the multi-layered defense approach is that if one approach fails, another would replace it. This increases the network defense of a system and addresses several attack vectors.

Join us as we unpeel the layers of defense in depth and get to the root of why it’s an essential component of a network defense strategy, along with the certifications that you would need as a professional  to perform this important role for Employers across the globe.

Why Is Defense in Depth Important?

Today, everything that connects one device to another needs a robust network defense strategy. Understanding and implementing defense in depth is essential, whether you’re a CISO looking to train your employees or cybersecurity professionals seeking new ways to battle old enemies.

Poor network defense practices without a robust defense in depth strategy can lead to businesses suffering malware attacks and phishing cons, leading to damages worth millions and theft of customer data as well as confidential information.

According to IBM, the global average cost of a data breach in 2020 was $3.86 million [1].

As data breaches are set to remain persistent and destructive in the future, the demand for strong network defense and solutions is increasing concurrently.

◉ Businesses can suffer malware attacks, phishing, and human mistakes leading to damages worth millions. Poor network defense practices lead to these issues. Almost every industry sector has been a victim of an attack like this in 2020. Attackers misuse customer data as well as confidential information for their malicious intentions. To ensure that their operations continue with ease, they should always take help from network defense experts.

◉ Professionals need to learn about network defense strategies because it helps raise awareness and improves their online practices. Multiple attacks worldwide have happened because the unaware employees of an organization mistakenly share confidential information with hackers. Through better network security policies, professionals will understand how to avoid such attacks and inform the cybersecurity team before a major incident happens.

◉ Understanding network security practices is also important for students, especially those who are planning to pursue a career in IT or cybersecurity. Initial understanding of network security will help them stay a step ahead during their learning stage as well as in their professional career.

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What Are the Key Layers of Defense in Depth?

Administrative controls: These are security essentials that comprise the procedures or policies directed at an organization’s personnel, such as charging users to tag sensitive information as “classified.”

Any control: These controls are directed at an organization’s employees and vendors. Examples include:

◉ Information security policies

◉ Vendor risk management

◉ Third-party risk management frameworks

◉ Cybersecurity risk assessments

◉ Information risk management strategies.

Technical controls: These comprise security essentials that secure network systems or resources through specified hardware or software. Technical controls refer to the software security measures that are installed in the IT infrastructure, such as:

◉ Intrusion protection systems

◉ Web application firewalls

◉ Configuration management

◉ Web scanners

◉ Two-factor authentication

◉ Biometrics

◉ Timed access

◉ Password managers

◉ Virtual private networks

◉ At rest encryption

◉ Hashing

◉ Encrypted backups

Physical controls: These comprise security solutions that block physical access to IT systems. Some of the essential elements of physical controls include:

◉ Locks

◉ Security guards

◉ Surveillance cameras

◉ Keycards

◉ Motion detectors

◉ Demilitarized zones

Network Security Policies

An organization’s network security policy is a document that specifies the security outlooks of the organization. It is an official guideline that mandates users authorized to an organization’s resources, technology, and assets to comply with the laid down rules.

In order to implement a security policy, it is important to outline the precise policy that you intend to implement. Sometimes, these security measures turn out to be exceptionally restricting.

The following policies are enforced by organizations to protect their systems and other critical assets:

◉ Internet access

◉ Device security

◉ Wireless LAN

◉ Remote connection

◉ Intrusion

◉ VPN

◉ Port communication

◉ Firewall rules

◉ DMZ policy

◉ Secure communication policy

◉ Proxy server policy

Network Security Techniques

You need to possess the right techniques and tools to protect your network data from malicious threats and save your organization from destructive losses. Your technique requires you to know how to protect, detect, respond, and predict a broad range of attacks. Defense in depth solutions fall under the protective technique. Key techniques and tools include:

◉ Access control: This allows you to improve your network security by restricting user access and resources to just the sections of the network that clearly relate to the user.

◉ Antimalware and antivirus software: These are network security software created to detect vampiric programs and stop them from spreading.

◉ Anomaly detection: A standard understanding of how networks help you recognize anomalies. You can implement network anomaly detection engines (ADE) to evaluate your network. When you notice an anomaly, you can quickly respond to them.

◉ Application security: This establishes security considerations for critical applications to your network security.

◉ Data loss prevention (DLP): This helps prevent personnel and other users from abusing and potentially compromising valuable data.

◉ Endpoint security: This includes an additional layer of defense between organizational networks and remote devices.

◉ Intrusion prevention systems: IPD/IDS protect the database of known attack vectors so threats can be recognized instantly.

◉ Network segmentation: This helps you give the appropriate access to the appropriate traffic while controlling the traffic from suspicious sources.

◉ Web security: This helps prevent web-based threats such as malicious websites, malicious scripts, or adware programs from leveraging browsers as access points to penetrate a network.

Why Do We Need Hybrid Network Security?

Security threats have progressed from being single attacks to becoming an intricate blend of threats. For instance, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are currently introduced by tens of thousands of Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

Even with more traffic being encrypted, security applications still find it hard to detect threats. Cybersecurity professionals and teams are saddled with the overwhelming responsibility to recognize and protect against multifaceted threats.

Hybrid network security includes virtualization, software-defined networking (SDN), and application support across all layers of the service mesh, spanning various hardware devices and data centers. Many applications are applied collectively as a joint solution for defense in depth. It often includes a series of active and passive security applications.

One recognized method of tackling security threats is to construct a visibility fabric through network packet broker (NPB) appliances and virtual agents, alongside network tapping.

Verizon’s 2020 Data Breach Investigations Report states that 2020 has seen major cyberattacks across different verticals.

The worst-affected sectors were:

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Gear Up for the Next Stage of Cyber Defense

Every IT position today requires a certain degree of cybersecurity expertise to protect and defend apps, data, devices, and information. With defense in depth taking its position as the next stage of cyber defense, you need to equip yourself with the latest intel that will prepare you to overcome any challenge. A network security certification course with a dedicated module on defense in depth is your best bet forward, but make sure it aligns with your needs.

Drawing from its vast range of experience, EC-Council’s network security certification courses offer you cutting-edge content that covers everything from defense in depth to threat intelligence. The programs have been designed by a team of industry experts keeping real-world examples in mind. Blue Team Security Certifications like Network Security Fundamentals (NSF) and Certified Network Defender (CND) will provide the right guidance to climb the ladders of success as a cybersecurity expert.

Blue Team Security Certifications

You need security certificates to verify your expertise and improve your employability. Blue Team Security Certifications offer elaborate training in major defensive measures that prove useful for the internal security of modern businesses. Some of the top blue team security certifications include:

Network Security Fundamentals

This one’s for the students and cyber beginners out there! If you want to get a solid grasp of the basics, EC-Council’s Network Security Fundamentals (NSF) course is the way to go. As an entry-level security program, you will get a holistic overview of the vital elements of network security.

Once you’re done with the basics and have decided this is the right career path for you, it’s time to level up with…

Certified Network Defender

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If you’re looking to up your network security game, EC-Council’s Certified Network Defender (CND) is the program for you. Not only will it offer you a comprehensive approach to efficiently tackle security issues in today’s modern network, it also maps to the National Initiative of Cybersecurity Education (NICE) and the Department of Defense (DoD) roles for system/network administrators. Rest assured, CISOs can breathe easy knowing their employees are fully equipped to tackle attacks, while students and working professionals will be ready with the job-ready skills they need to fulfill their ambitions.

Source: eccouncil.org

Sunday, 27 December 2020

OCTAVE Threat Modeling – All You Need to Know

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With the increase in advanced persistent threats (APTs), defenders are constantly trying to safeguard an organization’s information systems by tailoring their defense mechanisms to preempt future attacks. As a result, organizations are recognizing the value of cyber threat intelligence and are planning to increase threat intelligence spending in upcoming quarters.

In cybersecurity, no prediction is perfect, but if we have the correct threat modeling protocols in place, then it provides a context to the gathered intelligence and helps analysts to identify, classify, and prioritize threats.

What Is the OCTAVE Threat Model?

OCTAVE is a threat modeling framework to assess and manage risks in an organization in the event of a data breach. It follows a comprehensive assessment methodology that allows an organization to identify the assets that are important and the threats and vulnerabilities in those assets. What information is at risk can be determined by putting the information on assets, threats, and vulnerabilities together. This helps the organization to design and implement a defense strategy to minimize the overall risk exposure of its information assets.

OCTAVE Threat Model Background

OCTAVE was developed in 2001 at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in collaboration with CERT for the U.S. Department of Defense. It’s useful for creating a risk-aware corporate culture and is highly customizable as per the organization’s specific security objectives and risk environment. There are 2 versions of OCTAVE:

1. OCTAVE-S, a simplified methodology for smaller organizations that have flat hierarchical structures, and

2. OCTAVE Allegro, a more comprehensive version for large organizations or those with multilevel structures.

Importance of OCTAVE Threat Model

OCTAVE is a flexible and self-operated risk assessment method. People from the business units and the IT department work together to address the security needs of the organization. The team defines the current state of security, identify risks to critical assets, and create a security strategy. Unlike other risk assessment methodologies, the OCTAVE model is driven by operational risk and security practices — not technology. The purpose of the OCTAVE model is to allow organizations to:

1. Assess and manage information security risks.

2. Take decisions based on the risks.

3. Protect key information assets.

4. Effectively communicate security information.

How to Implement the OCTAVE Threat Model

Phases of the OCTAVE Threat Model

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OCTAVE threat modeling is implemented in three phases:

1. Build an asset-based threat profile

In this phase, the team determines what IT assets are important to the organization and how they are safeguarded. Next comes selecting those assets that are critical and highly important to the organization and establishing security requirements for each asset. Last is identifying threats to each asset, creating a threat profile based on that.

2. Identify infrastructure vulnerabilities

In this phase, the analysis team identify important infrastructure vulnerabilities and develop policies and practices to address these vulnerabilities. This is done by:

◉ Examining the organization’s information infrastructure configuration, data flows, and network access paths.
◉ Performing infrastructure vulnerability assessments by selecting and analyzing intrusion scenarios.

3. Develop security strategies and plans

During this phase, the team of analysts identify and prioritize the risks based on how critical the asset is for the organization. This is achieved by determining vulnerable points in potential intrusion scenarios and examining assets exposed by these vulnerabilities. Finally, the team creates a protection strategy for the organization and defines mitigation plans to address the risks to the critical assets, based upon on the analysis of the intelligence gathered.

Source: eccouncil.org

Saturday, 26 December 2020

How to Choose a Digital Forensic Certification

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Digital forensics or computer forensics is a forensics science branch that deals with the identification, recovery, and investigation of the materials found in digital devices when investigating computer-based crimes. Most organizations today are choosing to employ the services of digital forensics experts to collect information and evidence against intruders in addition to identifying them. In recent years, digital forensics has expanded to focus on mass storage devices. This led to an expansion in digital forensics certifications, which were necessary to accommodate the movement of digital crime activities outside the computer. Understandin how to choose the most appropriate digital forensics certification to become an expert in this field depends on the educational requirements, available certification options, and how various certifications line up against frameworks like NIST and NICE. Let’s dive in.

What Are the General Education Requirements for Digital Forensics Professionals?

A forensic computer analyst must be well informed on both computer programming and law enforcement standards. A bachelor’s degree is not always needed, but most employers ask for it. Related study areas at both the bachelor’s and advanced degree levels include IT, computer science, and criminal justice. For people without any of these advanced degrees, most employers will generally ask for proof of one’s background in the technical skills and knowledge of the profession from the successful completion of one of the several available digital forensics certifications.


What Are the Various Certification Options?


With a growing interest in digital forensics as a profession, many companies and associations have started offering certifications and specialized training. Some certifications offer skills in using specific software tools provided by the same companies that built them. Other certifications are provided by professional associations but are mostly available to current law enforcement employees. Selecting the right certification requires a balance between the education and experience that one has. Additionally, the skills which an individual has should complement the chosen certification.

Many of the people interested in digital forensics jobs enrol for a program that spans between 2 to 4 years, with certification courses like investigative techniques, mobile forensics, white-collar crime, computer ethics, and laws that interfere with the searching and confiscating of digital properties. Upon successful completion of a certification, a candidate can choose to work in cybersecurity, digital consulting, counterterrorism, or criminal investigation.

Entry-level programs are designed for high school graduates and require a solid base in mathematics, computer science, logic, and statistics. Advanced programs may need a bachelor’s degree in computer science and related degrees, in addition to specific certifications and competencies. Though most certifications are not well recognized, some certifications stand out from the rest. These are:

◉ Access Data Computer Examiner
◉ Certified Forensic Computer Examiner (CFCE)
◉ Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator v8 (CHFI)

How Do Various Certifications Line Up Against Frameworks like NIST and NICE?


ACE: Access Data Certified Examiner

Access Data is the company that makes the Forensic Toolkit (FTK), which is a popular solution for digital investigations. The company also offers the Access Data Certified Examiner (ACE) certification, which covers the FTK Imager, Registry Viewer, Password Recovery Toolkit, and the FTK Examiner Application management window tools. The company recommends basic to moderate forensic knowledge before trying the certification. This may include understanding registry files, digital artifacts, hashing, encrypting and decrypting files, attack types, and how to utilize live and index searching. Recertification is needed every two years, with credential holders expected to pass the current ACE exam, which focuses on the most recent versions of FTK and other tools.

CFCE: Certified Forensic Computer Examiner 

The CFCE credential was introduced by The International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists. This organization mainly leans towards offering these certifications to law enforcement personnel. This is because one must be employed in law enforcement to qualify as a regular IACIS membership. To get the CFCE certification, candidates are expected to show proficiency in CFCE core competencies. IACIS membership is required to attend this course. Candidates that finish the training course can enrol directly in the CFCE program upon completion of this certification. The CFCE exam has two steps — a peer review and CFCE certification testing.

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CHFI: Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator

EC-Council is a training and certification organization whose specialties are penetration testing, digital forensics, and anti-hacking. The CHFI certification focuses on analytical techniques, forensics tools, and the procedures used in collecting, maintaining, and presenting digital forensic evidence and important data as legal proof in a court of law. EC-Council offers training for this certification, but candidates can appear for the exam without taking the course as long as they have a minimum of 2 years of information security experience. The CHFI course covers in-depth computer forensics, digital evidence, anti-forensics, network traffic, database, cloud forensics, mobile and email forensics, and policies and regulations.

Source: eccouncil.org

Thursday, 24 December 2020

Everything You Should Know About Penetration Testing

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Penetration testing has become critical for ensuring secure systems. Malicious actors can leverage any weaknesses or flaws in your system to wreak untold havoc. This is a grave issue for blockchain-based companies that handle huge amounts of money. Organizations must ensure that all the necessary processes are followed to protect their investor’s interests.

Setting up a penetration testing program in your organization can be overwhelming. You’ll wonder where to begin and what to look for. Before you consent to perform a simulated attack on your organization’s network, you’ll want to know the purpose of the exercise. What are the benefits? How often should you perform a penetration test for effectiveness?

We have decided to present you with an article that provides you with the necessary information to alleviate your fears. We’ll explain all you need to know about penetration testing and the right tools you can use.

What Is Penetration Testing?

A penetration test, otherwise called pentest or pen test, is a simulated cyberattack against your organization’s system to examine vulnerabilities and the strengths of systems. This procedure pinpoints the target systems and a specific objective, post which it evaluates accessible information and uses different methodologies to achieve that objective.

You shouldn’t confuse penetration testing with a vulnerability assessment. While a vulnerability assessment searches for known weaknesses, pen tests make efforts to actively leverage weaknesses in an environment. Likewise, through penetration testing, you can determine whether the current defensive processes used on the system are strong enough to counteract potential security breaches.

Furthermore, you can conduct these tests manually, automatedly, or a combination of the two. The manual strategy allows pen testers to apply their intuition, whereas the automated approach allows them to use automated tools. Automation is beneficial because of its uniformity and thoroughness.

Why Conduct a Penetration Test?

The purpose of penetration testing is to keep critical data safe and secure from malicious actors who may gain unauthorized access. Penetration testers need to examine technical vulnerabilities, design flaws, and other vulnerabilities proactively to strengthen systems effectively.

The ultimate goal is to identify security weaknesses in a piece of software, network, or machine. The security professional then uses the information gathered to eliminate vulnerabilities before malicious hackers can exploit them.

Security isn’t restricted to how well the software and machines respond to penetration efforts. Other factors are also significant, including:

◉ The security awareness of employees.

◉ The efficiency of an organization’s security policy.

◉ The effectiveness of your incident response plan.

◉ Your observance of regulatory compliance.

4 Popular Penetration Testing Methodologies

Pen testers apply different strategies or a combination of techniques during penetration testing. The selection will largely depend on what you hope to achieve.

Internal testing

Internal testing is conducted from the user account presented to the tester. The tester then simulates an attack from a malicious insider to determine if the account can access resources it shouldn’t or take actions it isn’t authorized to perform.

Internal testing doesn’t have to simulate a rogue employee. It can analyze the potential impact of an outsider gaining access to a vital account. An example is when the credential of an employee is hijacked during a phishing attack.

External testing

Organizational assets that are visible to outsiders through the internet are targeted. Examples include email and domain name servers (DNS), firewalls, FTP servers, company websites, the web application itself, and exploitable devices.

The pen tester conducts this test using the perception of a malicious outsider who initially lacks access to the system. This test involves scanning for leaked information, access points for open ports, login attempts, and probing services.

Blind testing

This is similar to external testing. However, the tester is merely provided with the name of the organization that’s being targeted at random. This requires additional time to gather information to pose as a typical external tester.

Double-blind testing

This is an interesting penetration testing technique because both the client organization and the tester are working blind. IT professionals in the organization are unaware of the simulated attack and only a few people on the client side are aware of this.

This methodology assesses the skill of the security team to respond to potential intrusion detection. This is a risky venture because the security team may try to quarantine systems or limit operations to stop the assumed attack.

5 Stages of Penetration Testing

There are five stages in a penetration test.

1. Planning and reconnaissance

The first stage in penetration testing is planning and reconnaissance. This involves defining the test’s scope and goal, followed by the collection of initial data or intelligence on your target to understand how the target works.

2. Scanning

Next, the tester will analyze how the target application will tackle different attack attempts. Static analysis and dynamic analysis are two forms of testing available to the tester.

3. Gaining access

At this stage, the tester will try to gain access to discover the target’s vulnerabilities like backdoor and cross-site script. The tester can leverage weaknesses by intercepting traffic, stealing data, or escalating privileges.

4. Maintaining access

Here, the tester tries to see if the vulnerability identified can be exploited to accomplish a persistent presence in the manipulated system.

5. Analysis

Finally, the tester tries to conceal his/her tracks to eliminate every possibility of detection. The tester gathers the results of the penetration attempts into a report, which is then examined for weaknesses.

Most Common Penetration Testing Tools

There are different tools available for penetration efforts. Examples include:

◉ Nmap

◉ Acunetix

◉ OWASP ZAP

◉ Intruder

◉ Wireshark

◉ John the Ripper (or “JTR”)

◉ Metasploit

◉ Nessus Vulnerability Scanner

◉ OpenSSL

How Often Should You Conduct a Penetration Test?

You should conduct penetration testing regularly to guarantee more reliable IT and security management. Although every organization has its own distinctive needs, the best practice is to conduct pen testing 1-2 times annually.

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Nevertheless, the installation of new networking infrastructure, tolerance to cyber risk, compliance requirements, and alterations in cyber policies play a significant function in determining how frequently penetration tests should be conducted.

You can follow this simple 3 point checklist to know how often your organization should conduct a pen test.

1. Changes to critical infrastructure, software, and policies: Organizations change their architecture and systems for different reasons. A new penetration test is needed to reevaluate your network’s security and make sure that unplanned vulnerabilities are detected and mitigated.

2. Compliance requirements: This also affects penetration testing. Most organizations try to comply with industry-specific requirements to demonstrate due diligence, appeal to new customers, and maintain the old patronization. Popular compliance standards that require penetration testing include HIPAA, PCI DSS, GLBA, FISMA, and ISO 27001.

3. Assess your business’ risk to cyberattacks: This focuses on identifying, estimating, and prioritizating risks to ensure safe processes and application of information systems. You can detect vulnerabilities and loopholes that need to be mitigated using a cyber risk assessment.

Learn More by Becoming a Penetration Tester


Most cybersecurity positions require candidates to be certified in addition to their education and work experience prerequisites. Cybersecurity certifications and training are worthwhile when you add them to other qualifications on your resume. Certification programs verify the competence of IT professionals in the necessary domains required to secure systems and networks against potential threats and risks.

You can acquire the necessary skills through penetration testing courses online and certification programs. IT companies, professional organizations, and other online schools offer many cyber security-based certification programs. It would help if you researched suitable certifications before enrolling.

Some of the popular penetration testing certifications include Certified Penetration Testing Professional (CPENT) and Licensed Penetration Tester (LPT Master).

Source: eccouncil.org

Tuesday, 22 December 2020

How to Transition from IT to Cybersecurity?

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You can no longer assume that anyone’s job is secure. The nature of today’s job, even before the pandemic hit us, was changing irrefutably. The world has shifted from a work setting where people hold the same job until they retire, to people shuffling through jobs a minimum of 3 times throughout their career. If you’re looking for job security, a transition from IT to cybersecurity is recommended.

If you transition from IT to information security or cybersecurity, you’ll have more career options across a wide range of industries such as retail, finance, or government. However, IT is a highly specialized field. With the plethora of cybercrimes and lack of professionals, an IT professional or enthusiast will find a switch to cybersecurity very lucrative.

However, the question still remains: “How do you begin a career in cybersecurity?” You can get started with this article. We list all the important points you need to know about a career transition into cybersecurity, from where you should start to how you can grow your career.

Where to Start: Your Career Options in Cybersecurity

While a candidate with an IT background will find a career transition easy, the fact is, there is no single entry point into cybersecurity. Professionals or enthusiasts from different backgrounds such as computer science, history, mathematics, or even philosophy can also pursue a career in cybersecurity.

The important thing is to have a deep and abiding interest in how technology works. Nevertheless, you need to know and understand precisely what you’re protecting and why you need to protect those critical assets.

Begin with an IT background


It is recommended that you start with an apprenticeship, internship, or job in IT. Experts suggest that this approach will make you competent in the basics of networks, coding, administering & configuring systems, and database management. Moreover, you’ll be conversant with IT concepts and real-life business operations.

Streamline your options

There are different fields in cybersecurity. You can’t possibly be a specialist in all the fields. You’re advised to specialize in a specific aspect and do a good job while you’re at it. Once you know your area of specialization, search for “Type of IT jobs that can lead to cybersecurity” and gain the appropriate skills. Your starter career jobs could look like these:

◉ Network administrator ~ Network security, digital forensics, etc.
◉ System administrator ~ Security administrator, digital forensics, etc.
◉ Web developer ~ Web security, security software developer, etc.
◉ Network engineer ~ infrastructure engineer, network security engineer, security operations center analyst, etc.

Get relevant experience

Finally, get practical experience in the relevant field. You don’t have to be an IT professional for this. You can gain experience with the right training program.

Type of IT Jobs That Can Lead to a Switch to Cybersecurity


There are certain IT jobs that can help you transition to cybersecurity. The trick is to ensure your entry-level IT jobs give you some security-related experience. The basic requirement is to have detailed computer knowledge. Notwithstanding, most of the experience you’ll need are developed on the job. Some IT jobs that’ll facilitate your career switch are:

◉ IT Technician
◉ System Administrator
◉ Network Engineer
◉ Computer Programmer
◉ Web Administrator
◉ Computer Software Engineer
◉ Database Administrator
◉ Network Systems & Data Analyst
◉ Computer Support Specialist
◉ Network Administrator
◉ IT Technical Support
◉ Computer Systems Analyst
◉ IT Customer Service

Required Cybersecurity Skills to Start a Career in this Industry


You can’t go into the fields mentioned above without the relevant skills. This is what differentiates amateurs from professionals.

Hard and soft skills for an enthusiast with a technical background

If you’re from a technical background, your soft skills will include the ability to communicate technical data to non-technical persons, a positive work ethic and attitude, the ability to grasp the big picture, the ability to work in a team, and so on.

Your hard skills are the skills you already have from your technical background. For instance, you’ll already know how to defend against SQL injections if you’re a web developer. This skill will be useful when you become a cybersecurity developer. Similarly, you might use C++ as a software engineer if you’re into programming. Other hard skills you’ll need are:

1. Programming and coding skills

◉ PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby, and shell
◉ Java, C, C++, and C#
◉ Disassemblers and Assembly language
◉ Linux/MAC Bash shell scripting

2. Network skills

◉ System/network configuration
◉ Network protocols
◉ Visualization software
◉ Packet analysis tools
◉ Packet Shaper and Load Balancer
◉ Proxy Server knowledge
◉ VPNs
◉ TCP/IP
◉ Computer networking
◉ Routing and switching
◉ Firewalls
◉ Intrusion detection/prevention protocols

3. Operating systems and database management

◉ Linux, Windows, and UNIX operating systems
◉ MySQL/SQLite environments

Hard and soft skills for a non-technical enthusiast

You’ll have less technical knowledge and skills if you’re from a non-technical background. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll be at a disadvantage.

You’ll probably lack coding and development skills. But you may have great communication skills, which you’ll need if you’re a cybersecurity technical writer. You’ll need the same soft skills as a person with a technical background such as interpersonal skills, presentation and communication skills, implementation skills, and/or problem-solving skills.

Then again, it’s possible you don’t need all these hard skills to be employed. There are positions you can secure with the non-technical skills you already have. These are dependent on your ability to study and understand new concepts. You can easily earn these jobs within a few months.

◉ Network Administrator
◉ Cyber Policy Analyst
◉ SOC Analyst
◉ Vulnerability Analyst
◉ Technical Writer

Learning Options Available


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You can brush up your knowledge with self-directed learning, guided training, and networking.

◉ Self-study

This training option suggests that you’ll learn it on your own. The first step is to get the right resources. You can read IT and security blogs, news, or magazines to build your computer knowledge and learn coding.

You don’t have to go in-depth, just know the basics. You can take part in cybersecurity training games and contests such as Capture the Flag contests (CTFs) or Wargames.

◉ Guided training

On the other hand, you can train with a tutor or invest in online cybersecurity training courses. You can also offer to help your employer or professor with security-based tasks.

◉ Networking

You can join forums where relevant information is shared like LinkedIn groups, security organizations, or professional networks. Collaborate with a team in school or at work on a cybersecurity project or connect with peers playing Wargames and CTFs.

Career Growth Opportunities in Cybersecurity


Apart from your hard skills and work experience, employers are interested in your relevant IT certifications. Certifications verify your skills and experience. Make sure you add related certifications on your resume to jump-start your career transition to cybersecurity.

Several certification programs are obtainable from a beginner to an advanced level like EC-Council’s CEH program. You can’t be a great cybersecurity expert without continuous learning. So don’t stop learning.

Source: eccouncil.org

Sunday, 20 December 2020

An Introduction to Cloud Computing | Ethical Hacking

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Cloud computing has become one of the most deliberated topics among cybersecurity experts and IT professionals. And more recently, cloud computing in ethical hacking has taken up the spotlight. With the rise of cloud crimes, experts are looking into how ethical hacking principles can curb security issues and boost forensic investigations as well.

Cloud computing presents new paths for malicious hackers to leverage vulnerabilities, thus increasing the new categories of vulnerability and cloud security concerns. Moreover, investigating crimes in the cloud can be somewhat demanding.

This article serves as an introduction to cloud computing and its benefits. It also explains how cloud computing in ethical hacking can be useful.

What Is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing describes the on-demand delivery of IT competencies like storage, databases, servers, intelligence, analytics, networking, and others through metered services. This lets you customize, create, and configure applications either offline or online. The word ‘cloud’ refers to a network.

Previously, you could only store information locally. An on-premises data center required organizations to manage everything — procuring and virtualization, installation of an operating system, setting up network and storage for data, and maintenance.

Cloud computing dramatically altered this state of affairs by off-shoring or outsourcing ICT duties to third-party services. They are not only responsible for procurement and maintenance, but they also offer a wide range of platforms and software as a service. Some cloud computing service providers include Amazon Web Services, IBM Cloud, Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure, VMware, DigitalOcean, RackSpace, etc.

4 Types of Cloud Computing

There are four popular types of cloud computation:

◉ Hybrid cloud: Describes combined computing, services environment, and storage, which includes Private cloud services, on-premises infrastructure, and public cloud such as Microsoft Azure or Amazon Web Services (AWS). The company may manage some applications on the public cloud, while other critical applications are hosted on the private cloud.

◉ Public cloud: It is an IT model where computing infrastructure and services are hosted by the cloud vendor and shared with several organizations through the public internet. This cloud computing type makes computing resources accessible to people for purchase and is shared by multiple users.

◉ Private cloud: This is defined as a computing infrastructure or services dedicated to a specific organization, which isn’t shared with the general public. They are offered over a private internal network or Internet and need the same management, workforce, and maintenance expenditures as customary data center ownership. As such, they are more costly and secure than public clouds.

◉ Community cloud: Describes the sharing of computing infrastructure and services to a restricted set of organizations or staff like heads of trading firms or banks.

What Is Cloud Computing Used For?

This categorization is based on the types of services offered:

◉ Platform as a Service (PaaS): Or otherwise application platform as a service, involves providing a platform that lets consumers develop, manage, and run applications. This excludes the complications of sustaining the infrastructure usually connected with launching an app. Popular examples are Microsoft’s Azure, Google Application Engine, and Salesforce.

◉ Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): This is a type of cloud computing that offers virtualized computing resources over the internet. It involves presenting abstracted hardware, virtual machines, and operating systems through the concepts of cloud computing. However, you purchase the infrastructure while retaining the software. Examples of vendors that provide this service are Flexiscale, Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, and Rackspace Cloud Servers.

◉ Software as a Service (SaaS): This offers wide-ranging software features on the cloud. What this means is that you access applications through the internet rather than downloading software on your PC, desktop, or business network. You can implement on-demand bases, such as Google, Salesforce, and Microsoft’s online version of Office, .

The Benefits of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is highly valuable:

◉ Extremely fast: You can assess your resources in minutes with a few clicks.

◉ Saves you money: Cloud computing minimizes the enormous capital cost of procuring software and hardware. You need less personal training and personnel.

◉ Increases productivity: You put in less operational effort with cloud computing. You don’t have to apply patches and there’s no need to sustain hardware and software. By doing so, IT professionals and the cybersecurity team can be more productive and attend to more pressing business needs.

◉ Highly scalable: The requirements of resources can be decreased or increased based on your business demands.

◉ More secure than its alternatives: Storing data on the cloud is relatively secure when compared to storing data on your hard drives and other storage options. Cloud vendors often provide a broad range of controls, technologies, and policies that strengthen the security of your data.

◉ More dependable: You can forget about unnecessary data loss when you use the cloud. Backup and recovery are faster and more cost-effective for business continuity.

Most Common Cloud Computing Threats and Attacks


One of the major issues with cloud computing is security and privacy concerns over the infrastructure and services provided by a third party. While vendors try to ensure secure networks, a data breach could affect consumers and their businesses. Another concern is the need for private data to be stored separately. If another customer falls victim to an attack, the availability and integrity of the data might be compromised. Some of the common threats and attacks which can affected cloud computing are:

◉ Natural disasters
◉ Malicious insiders
◉ Deletion without backups
◉ Hardware failures
◉ Unknown risk profile
◉ Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks
◉ Compliance risks
◉ VM level attacks
◉ Authentication attacks
◉ Loss of coding key
◉ Vulnerable co-existents
◉ Man-in-the-middle attacks
◉ Cryptanalysis attacks
◉ DNS attacks
◉ Social engineering attacks
◉ Cross-site scripting (XSS)
◉ SQL injection attacks
◉ Account, service, and traffic hijacking
◉ Unauthorized access
◉ Insecure or incomplete data deletion

Cloud Computing in Ethical Hacking


Cloud computing services make business applications mobile and cooperative. However, there is always the risk of security and privacy breach when handling sensitive data to vendors or a third party. The fundamental ethical principles of IT remains unaffected even with the emergence of cloud computing infrastructure and services.

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It is critical to reconsider these principles. Particularly since most of what used to be completely internal deliberations of operations and risk management has been assigned to vendors and persons who sit beyond immediate organizational control. These vendors become the main keepers of customer data, risk mitigation, and functional operation. Therefore, they must understand the operational risks they are undertaking on behalf of their clients.

Similarly, these clients also have an obligation, since it’s possible they are also providing services to other clients. It is important to have an in-depth knowledge of the technology employed and its associated risks. The easiest way is to undertake due diligence when considering a third-party provider for cloud computing services.

At the end of the day, it all boils down to certain basic concepts: accountability, honesty, respect for privacy, and “do unto others what you would like to be done unto you.” Cloud computing can be maximized only if true, long-term trust is established between clients and providers. This can only be achieved through a definite system of ethics. As such, the storing of client data in the cloud should follow stricter regulations.

Source: eccouncil.org

Saturday, 19 December 2020

9 Tips to Improve Your Java Programming Skills

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Java is among the most popular and versatile object-oriented programming languages in the world. The best thing about it is its low-level language, which means you can implement all algorithms using a simple approach. Furthermore, Java is the best programming language that you can work with if you want to be a developer, learn how to code, or create applications.

It is important to build and deploy secure Java programs using secure designs. However, some best designs can lead to insecure programs if the software developer does not know about the Java programming language’s potential security threats.

In this Java programming tutorial blog, you will learn everything that you need to know about the Java programming language for beginners and how you can become a secure Java programmer.

What Is Java?

Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented, and secure programming language developed by James Gosling in 1991. It was formally known as Oak, but Sun Microsystems changed its name to Java in 1995.

Editions of Java

There are three editions of Java, and each edition has different capabilities:

Java Standard Edition (JSE): This is used for creating a program for desktop computers.

Java Enterprise Edition (JEE): This is used to create large programs that run on a server and manage heavy traffic and complex transactions.

Java Micro Edition (JME): This is used for developing applications for small devices like phones, set-top boxes, and appliances.

Types of Java Applications

There are four types of applications that you can create with the Java programming environment:

Standalone applications

The Java standalone applications are also known as desktop alienations, and it uses GUI components like Swing, AWT, and JavaFX. These components usually comprise lists, buttons, scroll panel, menu, and so on.

Web applications

Web applications are known as applications that run on the server. Java uses Servlet, Spring, JSP, and Hibernate technologies to create web applications.

Enterprise applications

These are applications that are distributed in nature.

Mobile applications

You can use Java ME, a cross-platform for developing mobile applications that run across smartphones. Furthermore, Java is a platform used for App Development in Android.

Why Learn Java Programming?

If you are a student or working professional that wants to be a great Software Engineer, learning Java is quite important. Some of the advantages of learning the Java programming language are:

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◉ Java is Object Oriented, which means you can easily extend it.

◉ Unlike lots of programming languages like C and C++, Java is compiled into platform-independent byte code. This code is distributed over the web and can be interpreted with Virtual Machine (JVM) and any platform that you run it.

◉ Java is quite easy to learn, and you can master it if you understand OOP’s basic concept.

◉ It can be used to develop virus-free and tamper-free systems using its security feature.

◉ Java tries to eliminate error-prone situations by emphasizing more on compile-time error checking and runtime checking.

◉ Java compiler can generate an architecture-neutral object file format, which means you can execute the compiled code on several processors with the Java runtime system.

Java Coding Tips Every Programmer Should Know

Java programming language is among the most popular coding languages worldwide, making it a great skill to learn if you want to start a programming career. Here are some tips to get you going in your learnig journey:

Learn the basics

The best place to start learning Java is knowing the basics of the programming language. If you are a complete beginner, learning the basics online will help kick-start your Java programming career.

Practice coding

According to old sayings, practice makes perfect. This means you can become a successful Java programmer if you are ready to study or practice. The best thing is that you can practice Java programming from home without any fancy software or facilities. Once you know the basics, the best thing is to start practicing.

Set your algorithm carefully

This is the process of putting yourself to the test. However, before you can set your algorithm, you must understand the basics of Java. Creating and solving a problem for yourself during your early days of practicing Java is a part of the learning curve. With an algorithm, you can tell your computer how to exactly do what you want it to do.

Do not forget to allocate memory

This is a useful tip when you are switching from C, C++ to Java. You will need to allocate memory in Java using a ‘new’ keyword because Java is a dynamic programming language. Some programming languages like C and C++ do not have memory allocation features, and you must be careful while handling array and object declaration in Java. If you do not use the new keyword, there will be a null point exception in the code.

Avoid creating useless objects.

You will be using up memory and processor speed from the system when creating an object in Java. However, object creation will be incomplete if you do not allocate memory to it. This is why it is best to keep the object requirements under check and avoid creating unwanted objects in the code.

Practice simple programs

You can start practicing Java using simple applications found online. This will help you set a great foundation that aids in the execution of new knowledge. Furthermore, if you write down all the program steps, it will help other beginners learn and understand Java.

Take your time to master the language

Java is similar to any programming language, and it can take time to master the programming language. This means you should not expect to learn everything about Java in a short time. As a beginner, you can learn the concepts of Java programming language by patiently practicing.


Source: eccouncil.org

Thursday, 17 December 2020

How to Build a World-Class Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Team

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In the digital world, how does one deal with system failure? There exists no perfect computing system, and failure is guaranteed to occur at some point. The next logical step would be to prepare for its eventual occurrence and try to mitigate the system’s costs going offline. How can an organization do this? The answer is to create a team specifically tasked with dealing with this problem.

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What Is Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity?


Business continuity planning is the process of creating backup systems to deal with a potential threat to a company. Through vigilance and proper planning, it helps an organization withstand changes in its environment and still operate. Disaster recovery is the set of procedures followed to assist the recovery of vital infrastructure and technology following a disaster. Though bearing a lot in common, disaster recovery focuses on IT or technological systems, whereas business continuity focuses on the business’ key areas.


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Why Is Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Important?


Some advantages of disaster recovery and business continuity are:

1. Companies with existing policies to manage disasters and system failures have increased the stability of operations. This reliability will allow the organization to maintain its performance and reduce overhead costs of dealing with a disaster.

2. Zero productivity is the result of a loss of business continuity. With disaster recovery and business continuity plans, it becomes possible to recover with minimum damage and asset loss. This helps secure the overall profit margin.

Should Your Company Practice Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery?


Like a car getting insured, business continuity and disaster recovery are insurance against natural or human-made disasters. If the question is whether your company should practice it or not, the answer is yes. By preparing for and managing damage from disasters and failures, it becomes possible for the organization not to be affected in the best-case scenario and get back up and running much faster in the worst-case scenario.

Role of a Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Team

Now that you’ve decided to invest in disaster management and recovery, the need for a team to handle this becomes quickly apparent. The entire process’ complexity requires a team that understands how the business and systems in the organization operate. The team would need to know the whole business inventory, including equipment, suppliers and supplies, locations and documentation on the business. The team is also responsible for impact analysis, threat analysis, and impact scenarios. A potential business threat may require unique recovery steps. A tiered rank of preparedness is also prepared, and the final solution is designed by the disaster recovery and business continuity team. The answer is then implemented and tested, and if successful, maintained by the team.

Skills Required for Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity


The nature of these policies requires a certain level of skill is necessary. To carry out disaster recovery, computer skills are a must. A member of the team needs to be skilled in networking and network administration. Database and application specialists are also required. A DevOps developer is needed for fast prototyping of solutions. A system analyst must evaluate the system, while a security expert must create security policies for handling application failure.

What Roles Do Training and Certification Play?

For businesses to carry out these policies, their employees must stay updated on the latest technology trends. An organization can use online certifications to ensure their employees are up to the task. Combining online training from industry professionals and hands-on practice can generate a higher quality plan which is continuously being updated.

Looking to get your organization a business continuity plan or are you a professional looking to join a disaster recovery team? Here at EC-Council, we offer numerous certifications and hands-on training to give you the know-how and skill to properly implement and take part in disaster recovery and business continuity teams. Our practical hands-on approach makes sure that you have the practical knowledge of carrying out plans to complete our certifications.

Are you looking to implement a business continuity plan? At , we have several certifications to help you on your way to implementing a business continuity and disaster recovery program for your organization. With our iLabs, we also provide practical training in implementing disaster recovery and business continuity programs for your organization.

Source: eccouncil.org

Tuesday, 15 December 2020

What is Pasta Threat Modeling?

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In the new cyber age, the need for cybersecurity is becoming increasingly apparent. The increasing complexity of attacks and the number of cybercriminals has led to more security breaches in the last couple of years. The organizations whose data centers or applications were compromised suffered staggering losses. Businesses need to become aware of security threats and how to deal with them. Threat Intelligence equips organizations with predictive capabilities to identify threats and vulnerabilities so the security team can take counter measures to mitigate threats.

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PASTA THREAT MODELING METHODOLOGY


Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis (PASTA) is a methodology to perform application threat modeling. This technique focuses on applying security countermeasures to potentially mitigate defined threat models, weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and attack vectors. PASTA allows organizations to understand an attacker’s perspective on applications and infrastructure, thus developing threat management processes and policies.

PASTA THREAT MODELING PROCESS

The PASTA threat modeling methodology is divided into seven stages:

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Define Objectives

In the first step of PASTA, the objectives of the threat modeling process are listed down. Clear objectives make the entire process more streamlined, with a focus on only the relevant assets. Objectives are also necessary for determining security and compliance requirements relevant to the process due to business or government regulations. The tools and methods to be used for the test are also defined in this step.

Define Technical Scope

The boundaries of the application need to be defined, along with the application dependencies from the network environment. The dependencies on the server infrastructure also need to be discovered and their relevance to the software. To accomplish this, high-level design documents are used in this stage which include network diagrams and logical & physical architecture diagrams. The software and technical specifications are also used as a source of information at this stage.

Decomposition & Analysis of Application

A definition and evaluation of assets needs to be carried out, wherein data in transit and at rest are taken into consideration. A trust boundary, a boundary in which a system trusts all subsystems inclusive of data, should also be created for each computing asset. Services, hardware, and software relevant to the application should be decomposed. Data entry points and trust levels are to be determined, resulting in the mapping of use cases with assets and actors.

Threat Analysis

This step is intended to identify and extract threat information from sources of intelligence. Threat analysis enumerates threat attack scenarios that are exploited by web-focused attack agents. An analysis of incidents and security events coupled with fraud case management reports is useful information at this stage. The enumeration process results in the identification of threat agents and attacks the application is susceptible to. Threat analysis, therefore, results in attack enumeration.

Vulnerabilities & Weaknesses Analysis

This stage aims to analyze the weaknesses and vulnerabilities of web application security controls. This stage correlates vulnerabilities to the application’s assets. It maps threats to security flaws in the application and enumerates and scores vulnerabilities as per established scoring. Some of the useful data sources in this stage include a library of threat trees and vulnerability assessment reports.

Attack/Exploit Enumeration and Modeling

There is the identification of the application’s attack surface. The attack trees for the identified exploits are enumerated and determined. A map of attack vectors to attack trees’ nodes is drawn, and the identification of exploits and attack paths is carried out with the attack trees’ aid.

Analyze Modeling & Simulation

After an attack vector has been modeled, the security analysts determine the plausibility of running a successful attack. An analysis of the application’s use and abuse cases is carried out to further shine a light on the identified exploit. Use cases are mapped to abuse cases. Threat modeling is used to link an attack vector and scenario in which it would be exploited.

Risk & Impact Analysis

Once the threat model has been successfully created and analyzed, an analysis of the affected areas should be carried out, should a successful attack occur. Affected assets, systems, and networks are analyzed to determine the extent of disruption. Gaps in security controls are identified in this step. Based on identified attack vectors, mitigations are developed, and residual risk determined.

How to Acquire Skills to Carry Out PASTA Threat Modeling?


EC-Council’s Certified Threat Intelligence Analyst (CTIA) Program teach you to create a Threat Intelligence project that includes Cyber Threat Analysis and Threat Modeling as well. The program gives you sound knowledge on different threat modeling methodologies and how to carry out the process.

Source: eccouncil.org